Use in ancient cultures[ edit ] Aztec women are handed flowers and smoking tubes before eating at a banquet, Florentine Codex16th century. Smoking's history dates back to as early as — BC, when the agricultural product began to be cultivated in Mesoamerica and South America ; consumption later evolved into burning the plant substance either by accident or with intent of exploring other means of consumption. Smoking in the Americas probably had its origins in the incense-burning ceremonies of shamans but was later adopted for pleasure or as a social tool.
Toxins poisons Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, Childbirthand the postpartum period. Gynaecology is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems vaginauterus, and ovaries and the breasts. Procreation is the sexual activity of conceiving and bearing offspring.
Human Reproduction is any form of sexual reproduction resulting in human fertilization, typically involving sexual intercourse between a man and a woman. Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms — "offspring" — are produced from their "parents".
Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction. There are two forms of reproduction: Reproductive System is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
Many non-living substances such as fluids, hormonesand pheromones are also important accessories to the reproductive system. Unlike most organ systems, the sexes of differentiated species often have significant differences.
These differences allow for a combination of genetic material between two individuals, which allows for the possibility of greater genetic fitness of the offspring.
Each gamete contains half the number of chromosomes of normal cells. They are created by a specialized type of cell division, which only occurs in eukaryotic cells, known as meiosis.
The two gametes fuse during fertilization to produce DNA replication and the creation of a single-celled zygote which includes genetic material from both gametes. In a process called genetic recombination, genetic material DNA joins up so that homologous chromosome sequences are aligned with each other, and this is followed by exchange of genetic information.
Two rounds of cell division then produce four daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes from each original parent cell, and the same number of chromosomes as both parents, though self-fertilization can occur.
For instance, in human reproduction each human cell contains 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs, except gamete cells, which only contain 23 chromosomes, so the child will have 23 chromosomes from each parent genetically recombined into 23 pairs.
Cell division initiates the development of a new individual organism in multicellular organisms, including animals and plants, for the vast majority of whom this is the primary method of reproduction. Reproductive health implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying and safer sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so.
One interpretation of this implies that men and women ought to be informed of and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of birth control; also access to appropriate health care services of sexual, reproductive medicine and implementation of health education programs to stress the importance of women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth could provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant.
Individuals do face inequalities in reproductive health services. Inequalities vary based on socioeconomic status, education level, age, ethnicity, religion, and resources available in their environment. It is possible for example, that low income individuals lack the resources for appropriate health services and the knowledge to know what is appropriate for maintaining reproductive health.
Generation is the act of producing an offspring. In kinship terminology, it is a structural term designating the parent-child relationship.
It is also known as biogenesis, reproduction, or procreation in the biological sciences. Biological Imperative - Social Influences Family Planning is the practice of controlling the number of children in a family and the intervals between their births, particularly by means of artificial contraception or voluntary sterilization.
Family planning may involve consideration of the number of children a woman wishes to have, including the choice to have no children, as well as the age at which she wishes to have them. These matters are obviously influenced by external factors such as marital situation, career considerations, financial position, any disabilities that may affect their ability to have children and raise them, besides many other considerations.
If sexually active, family planning may involve the use of contraception and other techniques to control the timing of reproduction. Other techniques commonly used include sexuality education, prevention and management of sexually transmitted infectionspre-conception counseling and management, and infertility management.
Family planning is sometimes used as a synonym or euphemism for access to and the use of contraception. However, it often involves methods and practices in addition to contraception.
Additionally, there are many who might wish to use contraception but are not, necessarily, planning a family e. Family planning may encompass sterilization, as well as abortion.
Family planning services are defined as "educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals, including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their children and to select the means by which this may be achieved".
Global birth season study links environment with disease risk.
In utero environmental exposures may explain why birth month correlates with some diseases. Studies have shown that babies born in winter tend to have a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes at some point, while fall babies have a greater lifetime risk of depression. Child Development Prenatal Diagnosis are aspects of prenatal care that focus on detecting anatomic and physiologic problems with the zygote, embryo, or fetus as early as possible, either before gestation even starts as in preimplantation genetic diagnosis or as early in gestation as practicable.Inhalants can be classified by the intended function.
Most inhalant drugs that are used non-medically are ingredients in household or industrial chemical products that are not intended to be concentrated and inhaled. IN THE US 1 OUT OF EVERY 4 DEATHS IS FROM CANCER "Statistics for Different Kinds of Cancer". Center for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases () 70% OF DEATHS AND MORBIDITY ARE LARGELY LIFESTYLE RELATED & PREVENTABLE.
THE ROLES OF ALCOHOL, SUGAR, SMOKING AND MEAT-BASED DIET. Arranged by Dewey Decimal Classification Social Sciences Translate this page to another language of your choice.
The number of drug overdose deaths caused by fentanyl increased nearly 6-fold from to The rate of drug overdose deaths in the U.S. increased by fold between and , with opioids being responsible for the majority of deaths.
Up to 24, diabetes-related deaths could be avoided in England each year, if patients and doctors better managed the condition, a report concludes. The first-ever audit of patient deaths from.
death in the U.S., and is the largest preventable cause of death. Over , people die prematurely each year due to tobacco related illnesses. 2 In fact, tobacco use.