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Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud May 6, —September 23, was a physiologist, medical doctor, and father of psychoanalysis, and is generally recognized as one of the most influential and authoritative thinkers of the twentieth century. He was an Austrian neurologist and the co-founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology.
Sigmund Freud The following has been adapted from the Wikipedia website. Sigmund Freud is commonly referred to as "the father of psychoanalysis" and his work has been tremendously influential in the popular imagination, popularizing such notions as the unconscious, defense mechanisms, Freudian slips and dream symbolism, while also making a long-lasting impact on fields as diverse as literature, film, Marxist and feminist theories, literary criticism, philosophy and psychology.
Freud is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind, especially involving the mechanism of repression; his redefinition of sexual desire as mobile and directed towards a wide variety of objects; and his therapeutic technique, especially his understanding of transference in the therapeutic relationship and the presumed value of dreams as sources of insight into unconscious desires.
He had his name after three Polish kings Zygmunts Sigismunds: Inat the age of 21, he abbreviated his given name to "Sigmund. His family had limited finances and lived in a crowded apartment, but his parents made every effort to foster his intellect often favoring Sigmund over his siblingswhich was apparent from an early age.
Sigmund was ranked first in his class in six years at the "Gymnasium", his grammar school. He went on to attend the University of Vienna at 17, from to Little is known of Freud's early life, as he destroyed his personal papers at least twice, once in and again in Additionally, portions of his personal correspondence and unpublished papers were closely guarded in the Sigmund Freud Archives at the Library of Congress and for many years were made available only to a few members of the inner circle of psychoanalysis.
Most of these previously restricted documents have now been declassified and are available to researchers who visit the Library of Congress in Washington, DC.
InFreud returned to Vienna and, after opening a private practice specializing in nervous and brain disorders, he married Martha Bernays.
He is often rumored to have had an affair later on with his sister-in-law, Minna Bernays C. Jung alleged as muchand a hotel log dated 13 August seems to support this allegation. Freud experimented with hypnotism with his most hysteric and neurotic patients, but he eventually gave up the practice.
One theory is that he did so because he was not very good at it.
He switched to putting his patients on a couch and encouraging them to say whatever came into their minds, a practice termed free association. In his 40s, Freud "had numerous psychosomatic disorders as well as exaggerated fears of dying and other phobias.
During this self-analysis, he came to realize the hostility he felt towards his father Jacob Freud and "he also recalled his childhood sexual feelings for his mother Amalia Freudwho was attractive, warm, and protective.
Freud had little tolerance for colleagues who diverged from his psychoanalytic doctrines. He attempted to expel those who disagreed with the movement or even refused to accept certain central aspects of his theory: InFreud was awarded the Goethe Prize by the city of Frankfurt, in recognition of his exceptional qualities as a writer in the German language.
His mother died the same year, at the age of ninety-five. On June 4,they were allowed across the border into France and then they traveled from Paris to Hampstead, London, England, where they lived at 20 Maresfield Gardens now the Freud Museum.
As he was leaving Germany, Gestapo forced him to sign a statement that he had been treated respectfully. Freud wrote sarcastically, "I warmly recommend the Gestapo to everyone.
Freud wrote to his friend Arnold Zweig: Newton to Charles Darwin. When his colleague Wilhelm Fliess, a nose and throat specialist, suggested that he quit in order to clear up some nasal catarrhs, Freud was unwilling to do so. Even after having his jaw removed due to malignancy, he continued to smoke until his death on September 23, After contracting cancer of the mouth in at the age of 67, he underwent over 30 operations to treat the disease, and for several years wore a painful prosthesis to seal off his mouth from his nasal cavity.
In the end, Freud could no longer tolerate the pain associated with his cancer.
He requested that his personal physician visit him at his London home for the purpose of helping him end his own life. Freud's death was by a physician-assisted morphine overdose.In Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality, the pleasure principle is the driving force of the id that seeks immediate gratification of all needs, wants, and urges.
In other words, the pleasure principle strives to fulfill our most basic and primitive urges, including hunger, thirst, anger, and sex. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways.
[The Pleasure Principle] We have long observed that every neurosis has as its result, and probably therefore as its purpose, a forcing of the patient out of . The pleasure principle is a term originally used by Sigmund Freud to characterize the tendency of people to seek pleasure and avoid pain.
Freud argued that people will sometimes go to great.
The concept of Freud's reality principle is that a person learns that pain and pleasure often function together in certain contexts in the world. A more refined development of the pleasure principle of the id, the reality principle is derived from the ego.
Two principles. Freud contrasted the pleasure principle with the counterpart concept of the reality principle, which describes the capacity to defer gratification of a desire when circumstantial reality disallows its immediate gratification.
In infancy and early childhood, the id rules behavior by obeying only the pleasure principle. People at that age only .