Pastoral Nomads and their Movements 1. Many of them migrated to this region in the nineteenth century in search of pastures for their animals. Gradually, over the decades, they established themselves in the area, and moved annually between their summer and winter grazing grounds. The dry scrub forests here provided pasture for their herds.
Origins[ edit ] Khoikhoi dismantling their huts, preparing to move to new pastures. Aquatint by Samuel Daniell The Khoikhoi practiced pastoralism for thousands of years in southern Africa. One theory is that pastoralism was created from mixed farming. Bates and Lees proposed that it was the incorporation of irrigation into farming which ensued in specialization.
The importance of these advantages and disadvantages to different farmers differs according to the sociocultural preferences of the farmers and the biophysical conditions as determined by Pastoral communities in india, radiation, soil type, and disease.
Bordering areas of land remained in use for animal breeding.
This meant that large distances had to be covered by herds to collect sufficient forage. Specialization occurred as a result of the increasing importance of both intensive agriculture and pastoralism.
Both agriculture and pastoralism developed alongside each other, with continuous interactions. Hunters of wild goats and sheep were knowledgeable about herd mobility and the needs of the animals.
Such hunters were mobile and followed the herds on their seasonal rounds. Undomesticated herds were chosen to become more controllable for the proto-pastoralist nomadic hunter and gatherer groups by taming and domesticating them.
Foraging strategies have included hunting or trapping big game and smaller animals, fishing, collecting shellfish or insects, and gathering wild plant foods such as fruits, seeds, and nuts. Resources[ edit ] Pastoralism occurs in uncultivated areas.
Wild animals eat the forage from the marginal lands and humans survive from milk, blood, and often meat of the herds and often trade by-products like wool and milk for money and food.
Pastoralists often compile wealth and participate in international trade. Pastoralists have trade relations with agriculturalists, horticulturalistsand other groups. Pastoralists are not extensively dependent on milk, blood, and meat of their herd.
McCabe noted that when common property institutions are created, in long-lived communities, resource sustainability is much higher, which is evident in the East African grasslands of pastoralist populations.
Mobility[ edit ] Mobility allows pastoralists to adapt to the environment, which opens up the possibility for both fertile and infertile regions to support human existence.
Important components of pastoralism include low population density, mobility, vitality, and intricate information systems. The system is transformed to fit the environment rather than adjusting the environment to support the "food production system.
Pastoralists and their livestock have impacted the environment. Lands long used for pastoralism have transformed under the forces of grazing livestock and anthropogenic fire. Fire was a method of revitalizing pastureland and preventing forest regrowth.Pastoral Communities in India The Gujar are an ethnic group in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan - Pastoral Communities in India introduction.
Today, the Gujars are classified under the Other Backward Class (OBC) category in some states in India. It is commonly believed that the crisis facing pastoralists in Africa is a result of their production system. Extensive pastoralism, characterized by seasonal or annual mobility of livestock in search of pasture over a large area of rangeland is widely believed to lead inevitably to desertification.
In the future, maybe we can have a market for pastoral foods in India. When we look at pastoralism, there is a clear justification for supporting this livelihood whether we look at it from the perspective of food sovereignty, the environment, biodiversity, culture and tradition, even employment.
PASTORAL COMMUNITIES Gujars The Gujar are an ethnic group in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Today, the Gujars are classified under the Other Backward Class (OBC) category in some states in India.
However, in Jammu and Kashmir and parts of Himachal Pradesh, they are designated as a Scheduled Tribe under the Indian government's . Pastoral Group in India- A Case Study!
A typical pastoral group in India is that of the Gujjars. These are the Gypsies of the Himalayas. They are perpetually on the move along with their flock of goats, sheep, cows and buffaloes all escorted by their pet ferocious dogs.
They can be easily spotted. PASTORAL COMMUNITIES Gujars The Gujar are an ethnic group in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Today, the Gujars are classified under the Other Backward Class (OBC) category in some states in India.