Haiti, a name that means "mountainous country," is derived from the language of the Taino Indians who inhabited the island before European colonization. After independence inthe name was adopted by the military generals, many of them former slaves, who expelled the French and took possession of the colony then known as Saint Domingue.
It was created on the basis of religious identity, so that Muslims from British India, which had an overwhelming majority of followers of the Hindu religion, would have a nation to call their own. It is bordered by India on the east, Iran and Afghanistan on the west, the great Karakoram mountain range and China on the north, and the Arabian Sea on the south.
Each of these regions has its own language and ethnic groups. The capital of Pakistan is the modern city of Islamabad, although its cultural and economic centers continue to be Lahore and Karachi. From about the eighth century until British dominance increased in the eighteenth century, Muslim rulers established kingdoms in northern India.
As a result, many Pakistanis and others in British India converted to the religion of the new people. Hundreds of thousands of Indians, both Hindu and Muslim, refused to cooperate with their British colonizers on every level of daily life—from the social to the political to the economic.
Finally, the British decided that they could no longer rule over India; they formally relinquished its Indian colony in Because Jinnah feared political, social, and cultural subordination to the Hindu majority, he started a movement to establish a separate state based on Islam for the Indian Muslims.
This group felt that in order to be truly free, Indian Muslims needed their own homeland. When the British finally left India intwo independent states, India and Pakistan, were formed. The separation was a consequence of, and resulted in, feelings of some bitterness between the two nations.
Hundreds of thousands of Hindus and Muslims died in the riots that followed independence, as Muslims from India migrated to Pakistan and Hindus who lived in the newly created Pakistan streamed into India.
Refugee camps were created on both sides of the border between the two countries to deal with these mass migrations.
These difficult, even tragic, beginnings that marked the two countries at their inception continued to be reflected in the relationship that has developed between them in the post-independence era. India and Pakistan have fought three wars over the years and have been involved in many other confrontations, particularly over the disputed Kashmir region that lies between the two countries and is today the scene of a protracted, three-way conflict among the Indians, Pakistanis, and Kashmiris, who are seeking independence from both India and Pakistan.
However, there are also ties of a shared history and culture that bind the people of the two countries. Many Muslims who chose to remain in India have close family members who moved to Pakistan and some Hindus remained behind in Pakistan, ensuring an intertwined destiny for the two countries.
After the death of Jinnah, Pakistan was ruled by a series of army chiefs under what were called martial law regimes. InPakistan was divided again as a result of ethnic insurgency in its Eastern wing, which was populated mainly by Bengali-speaking Muslims, and the subsequent war with neighboring India.
As a result of this division, a new sovereign country—Bangladesh—was created; Pakistan has since recognized Bangladesh and has established diplomatic and trading relations with the new nation.
An overwhelming 98 percent of the Pakistani population are followers of Islam. There are much smaller Hindu, Christian and Zoroastrian minority communities. Pakistan is not a secular state; the state religion is Islam, and religion enters many aspects of Pakistani political and social life.
There are also several distinct ethnic and linguistic groups in Pakistan, including Pathans, Punjabis, Sindhis, and Baluchis.
They include tribes on the border of Pakistan and Afghanistan, although the community has become increasingly urbanized in recent years. The Punjabi community is the center of education and industry in Pakistan and includes both rural and urban segments within it.
The Baluchis from Baluchistan were originally a semi-nomadic people; today, while many continue to follow ancient traditions, others have moved to the city of Karachi in search of employment.
All these communities have their own languages. The Sindhis come from the region of Sind and are a mixture of several different ethnic groups but share a common language, Sindhi. These subcommunities, who are represented in the larger Pakistani American community, have experienced some tension in recent times.
Pakistan has had four constitutions since Open Doors®, supported by a grant from the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs at the U.S.
Department of State, is a comprehensive information resource on international students and scholars studying or teaching at higher education institutions in the United States, and U.S.
students studying abroad for academic credit at their home colleges or universities. Acculturation and Assimilation Very little has been written about the Pakistani American community. Many scholars writing about ethnic communities in the United States tend to lump the community together with the larger Asian Indian community, thereby glossing over the distinctiveness of the Pakistani Americans.
President Dr. Arif Alvi along-with First Lady Mrs. Samina Alvi visited the National Library of Pakistan today. 11/15/ A delegation of Dawoodi Bohra Jamaat headed by Shaikh Kumail Shaikh Yunus called on the President of Pakistan Dr. Arif Alvi here this morning. Our Mission» The Language and Culture Institute is a gateway to Virginia Tech, committed to advancing the university’s global land-grant vision by providing campus-wide leadership and coordination in support of its international engagement efforts.
Pakistan has one of the world's fastest growing populations. As the country is located in South Asia, Pakistani people belong to different ethnic groups as the country is a transitional zone between Aryan and Iranic peoples.
The country is situated between Afghanistan, North India, and Persia. Our Mission» The Language and Culture Institute is a gateway to Virginia Tech, committed to advancing the university’s global land-grant vision by providing campus-wide leadership and coordination in support of its international engagement efforts.