Often the rise of a new hegemon is a result of the vacuum of power that an old empire leaves behind after entering a period of political and cultural decline. The Turks, or the future Ottomans, had become hegemons in the Middle East and South Eastern Europe not only because of their extraordinary political and military organization, but also because of the exhaustion of the older empires Byzantium and the Abbasids. In the eleventh century, the Turkish tribes living in Iran and western Anatolia were a constant source of mercenary soldiers for the Abbasid caliphs.
Decline was not only slow, gradual, interrupted, lasting rnore than three centuries, but also it was relative only to its own Golden Age and to the remarkable progress of its Christian European neighbors.
It is easier to describe decline than to explain it. Some developments which the Ottoman Empire did not take part in gave Europe its relative superiority. The Ottomans were more conscious of the dislocations in their own traditional system: This was no accident!
Mehmed III died in leaving two minor sons as the only direct male survivors.
The elder, Ahmet I, spared the life of his brother, Mustafa, but kept him secluded in a special apartment in the harem of Topkapi Palace. The Sitva Torok treaty with Austria should have been a wake-up call for the Ottomans.
Not only were most inexperienced and incompetent, many were minors under the influence of the Queen Mother Valide Sultan and harem favorites, giving rise to palace cliques and intrigue. For several decades in the first half of the Promotion by merit, long the hallmark of Ottoman administration, became less common.
Corruption spread to the provinces where an official would buy his office, then squeeze more taxes from the populace to reimburse himself. There were frequent shifts in judicial as well as civil officials, with justice also sometimes for sale.
In the mid-to-late 17th c. They were temporarily successful in arresting " decline " through traditional reforms, and in Ottoman forces besieged Vienna for the second time. But in the 17th c. Inafter defeat by a coalition of all Central and East European powers, the Ottomans accepted mediation, negotiated peace, and, by the Treaty of Karlowitz, for the first time gave up territories in the Balkans.
The shrinking of Ottoman frontiers had begun. The devshirme was abandoned just when is uncertain ; sons of janissaries were admitted to the corps, then other Muslims; and imperial slavery became a legal fiction.
The provincial cavalry army was made obsolete by musket-armed European troops, requiring the Ottomans to increase their standing infantry and equip them with firearms. The military fief system was all but abandoned and replaced by tax-farming. The heavy tax burden was responsible in part for revolts in Anatolia, abandonment of farm lands, and depopulation of villages; thus the empire experienced a decline in tax revenues despite higher taxes.
The Ottoman Empire suffered from severe inflation, as did all of Europe, as New World silver flooded in. This, together with debased coinage, fueled corruption.
By the 17th c. Asian spices were shipped directly to Europe, and wars with Iran interrupted the silk trade. European manufactured goods flowed in, undercutting local handicraft products and enriching Levantine merchants.
During the mid-century interlude of peace on the European frontiers, Ottoman political authority was further diffused.
Provincial notables and governors barely heeded orders from Istanbul. Levantines and Phanariot Greeks enjoyed enormous prosperity and influence. The Muslim religious elite reached the apex of their power. Her first war ended in the Treaty of Kuchuk Kaynarca by which the Ottomans gave up the Crimea, the first time they had lost territory inhabited primarily by Muslims.
Induring the second war with Catherine, Selim lll became sultan and initiated a reform program called the New Order, Nizam-i Cedid with emphasis on military and fiscal reform. They aimed at curbing provincial autonomy and achieving political centralization and modernization through Western-style military, administrative, and fiscal reforms.
Who would divide the spoils when the Ottoman Empire collapsed?
Such as many other empires, the Ottoman Empire seems to come from nowhere. Probably the rise of a hegemonic power depends on the vacuum of power that previous - old and dying - state structures leave behind. The Turks, the future Ottomans, became influential not because they had extraordinary political or military organization, but because of the exhaustion of the older empires of Byzantium. Sep 04, · The Ottoman Empire was the one of the largest and longest lasting Empires in history. It was an empire inspired and sustained by Islam, and Islamic institutions. It replaced the Byzantine Empire. Ottoman Empire, empire created by Turkish tribes in Anatolia (Asia Minor) that grew to be one of the most powerful states in the world during the 15th and 16th centuries. The Ottoman period spanned more than years and came to an end only in , when it was replaced by the Turkish Republic and various successor states in southeastern Europe and the Middle East.
To counter this, the Tanzimat period saw reforms center around a new concept of justice adalet:THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE. Ottoman history from has been described as ”The Decline of Faith and State.” To Ottomans, " decline ” meant dislocation of the traditional order; hence, ” reforms " to check or reverse " decline " meant restoring the old order which had produced the Golden Age of Suleyman the Magnificent.”.
Beginning from the late eighteenth century, the Ottoman Empire faced challenges defending itself against foreign invasion and occupation. In response to foreign threats, the empire initiated a period of tremendous internal reform which came to be known as the Tanzimat, which succeeded in significantly strengthening the Ottoman central state, despite the empire's precarious international position.
Ottoman Empire. Click to enlarge. World trade shifted from the Mediterranean Sea and from overland routes between the West and East. Piratical violence on the Mediterranean Sea was rampant and hurting economies connected to trade across that sea.
The Muslims had been world traders, but the bulk of. Ottoman Empire, empire created by Turkish tribes in Anatolia (Asia Minor) that grew to be one of the most powerful states in the world during the 15th and 16th centuries. The Ottoman period spanned more than years and came to an end only in , when it was replaced by the Turkish Republic and various successor states in southeastern Europe and the Middle East.
Ottoman Empire - The decline of the Ottoman Empire, – The reign of Süleyman I the Magnificent marked the peak of Ottoman grandeur, but signs of weakness signaled the beginning of a slow but steady decline. An important factor in the decline was the increasing lack of ability and power of the sultans themselves.
Süleyman tired of the campaigns and arduous duties of administration.
Concepts Social conflicts. Europe became dominated by nation states with the rise of nationalism in ph-vs.comn Empire was a religious Empire. The 19th century saw the rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire which resulted in the establishment of an independent Greece in , Serbia in , and Bulgaria in Most of the local Muslims in these countries suffered; many died.