To be able to effectively let your reader know what you think about a certain object or idea you have to be able to put your thoughts together in a cohesive and logical manner. The best way to do this is to make an outline.
In some cases you Critique culture web find yourself in a position where you need to implement a change that goes against the prevailing culture. This might be a new policy that is being brought in at institutional level, or it might be a change you plan for the department that forms part of a bigger strategy.
Implementing such a change can be a challenge, because the prevailing culture may act as a barrier.
Are we just a naturally intractable bunch, or is there some other reason behind our reluctance to embrace the many new developments that are coming our way? On this section we will investigate two theories about why cultures can be resistant to change — and consider what this might mean for your practice as a department head.
The cultural web We saw earlier in the course that culture comprises a set of shared philosophies, beliefs, ideologies, attitudes, values, expectations, assumptions and practices: This web can inhibit change — but it can also be harnessed to enable it.
Johnson and Scholes offer a useful means of conceptualizing the cultural environment of a community and how it develops. Their model identifies six interlinking processes that determine how culture is established and reinforced.
Consider the six different processes: Routines The unwritten ground rules as to how things are done: Text and cases 8th editionp.
The cultural web as a barrier and as a tool In a university setting, these six elements are very influential in encouraging tradition and long-standing practices.
And because all the elements are interdependent, if you seek to change one e. This fact is often overlooked when we are trying to encourage shifts in practice.
The cultural web can be a barrier to change — but it can also be harnessed to help implement change effectively. The first step is simply to be aware of it, and to use this awareness to help you anticipate how your community may react to new opportunities.
But more than this, as you plan your strategy for implementing change, consider which of the six elements you might be able to harness, to begin to provide an alternative view of the world and a new paradigm that promotes the benefits of the proposed changes.
The next paragraphs guide you through undertaking a cultural web analysis, using the case of a head trying to address some irregularities in research financial practices. Think about what you would encounter in your own department in this situation, and then examine the examples of the web our department head exposed through his analysis.
Routines High use of personal spreadsheets to keep financial records No project management practices in place Projects often running over budget and being bailed out Stories Grapevine tales of delays in getting information and financial updates; the time a wrong project was debited; of lack of trust in the university systems Symbols Research funding is a high status activity.
More money means you are a better researcher, and only high status people should be involved. Power structures Chief investigators see the funding as 'their' money Information about expenditure is kept confidential The right to spend is jealously guarded Organizational structure No role has responsibility for oversight of the department research budget expenditure Projects do not include a research manager role Controls Chief investigators not accountable for expenditure Research budgets do not follow a standard financial template allocation No annual review of expenditures Examples of misappropriation have been found Source: From these examples you will recognize that there will be quite a few issues to address.
While the development of a proper process will be integral, it is not the only thing to be fixed.
You will need to offer new stories of how better financial systems benefit researchers; encourage people to integrate the new routines; work with early adopters to show that the systems work; be firm around the governance and accountability issues to ensure there is stronger control over funds and their usage; and perhaps establish a role that has oversight of the processes.
A changing symbol of status might be promoting the value of having a project manager to handle the 'mundane' elements of expenditure. The cultural web is an extremely useful diagnostic tool to use. It can be used to help you identify what aspects of the culture need to be built upon, 'removed', changed or introduced to enable a paradigm shift.Read this article on Questia.
Academic journal article International Journal of Management The Use of Johnson's Cultural Web to Improve Understanding of Organisational Culture: A Critical Review. · The cultural web We saw earlier in the course that culture comprises a set of shared philosophies, beliefs, ideologies, attitudes, values, expectations, assumptions and practices: each of these features is interlinked, together forming a web – or ph-vs.com This study was part of a Knowledge Transfer Partnership project involving the University of Strathclyde and Royal Navy Base Faslane on the Clyde.
The main focus was a market research study to assist in the development of a retail hub for ph-vs.com · The Web log or blog is a recent and relatively popular phenomenon which is deemed to have the potential to promote citizen participation in the media, and in particular in the production of (critical) media content by ‘netizens’ (Hauben, ).
A blog can be defined as an online diary allowing the author(s) to share her/his/their views on a ph-vs.com · Request PDF on ResearchGate | The Use of Johnson’s Cultural Web to Improve Understanding of Organisational Culture: A critical review | Notions of culture, by which we mean the shared meanings ph-vs.com · A Review of the Managerial Grid Model of Leadership and its Role as a Model of Leadership Culture Rost () scathingly describes the leadership literature of the last 60 years as "confusing, discrepant, disorganised, and unintegrated" and leadership studies as not worthy of the name "academic discipline" (ph-vs.com Grid Paper Mar.