Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers. In the current version, punctuation is simpler only commas and periods separate the elementsand information about the source is kept to the basics. End this element with a period.
Teaching Reading in the Classroom. Survey of Historic Methods and Curricula. Public schools in the U. Teachers guides are passed out with workbooks, assessment quizzes, and practice sheets.
They enable parental complaints to be answered from behind the shield of legal responsibility. These unfortunate persons migrate upward through the system and after 9 or 10 years they usually chinese writing abcs worksheets out of school. As ofabout 40 million people are unable to read English street signs, maps, or want-ads.
The numbers worsen each year by about two million additional persons who either dropped out of school or who appeared as new immigrants, often unable to read or write their native languages. During the years of accumulated illiteracy, various methods of teaching reading have been swapped in and out by administrators and by curriculum committees.
Whatever the currently-prescribed method is, it always has to be applied obediently by teachers. No experimentation or deviation is allowed regardless of whether pupils are learning to read or not.
These teachers may benefit from this review of historic methods of teaching reading. Each method has been measured for effectiveness, then discarded, then reinstated, challenged, and often dropped again.
Not all of the historic methods represent failed practices. Corrected words are then spoken from computer speakers providing immediate feedback without incrimination or guilt. A list of 7, special words are identified and provided as the basis for curriculum planning.
Free - no costs. Created by Phyllis Schlafly. There are directions to her web site. This method can be used "after hours" by volunteer reading specialists. The teaching of reading ought to be unnecessary. Persons born in Austria, Germany, Holland, Switzerland, Finland, Spain, France, and Denmark learn to read with almost no instruction because their letters are used consistently with rigid reliability.
The written form of their words uses lettersto reliably represent the sounds that should be spoken or imagined. Just as children learn to speak the words of those languages, they also learn to read them because the spelling and use of letters is reliable.
Indisputably, the erratic, confusing spelling of English words defeats the basic purpose of a spelling system. There are hundreds of scholars, writers, and thoughtful observers who explain this with thousands of examples, although it should be obvious to everyone.
See bibliographic notes elsewhere. Spelling lessons consume a part of almost every school day in the U. The battle against illiteracy will be solved when a strategy for simplifying the spelling of our words is popularized.
Meanwhile, scholars have tried valiantly, inventing many teaching methods, in the hope that all children could be taught to read. John Dewey observed that what ever methods have been used to teach English reading, a few children always struggle in vain, never achieving literacy.
This was expressed in when flash cards, booklets, and classroom slates were used to teach the letters of the alphabet in rural America. As a method for teaching reading "The Alphabet Method" is no longer promoted. If a child or adult comes to school without knowing the English alphabet, this deficiency is remied as a separate topic.
Colorful flash cards today generally look like the insert here. Since sample words are shown with each alphabetic letter, the learner is prompted to repeat those words often, causing parents to falsely imagine that the pupil has learned to read.
The words show that the letter "Y" can be used at the beginning of a word, or within the word, or at the end of a word, and the word can be of various lengths. Unfortunately the child or adult will quickly be able to recite those words from memory.
The recitation, however charming, has not advanced the learner into understanding that the letters are meant to signal sounds that ought to be uttered. This method was popular in early America and the spelling books from to generally used this method.
The McGuffey Readers in the s migrated into short sentences with occasional rhyming words which could be used creatively by parents and teachers in a variety of teaching styles.
Being able to recite alphabet letters is necessary - a precondition before advancing into reading. Various amounts of emphasis may be given to letter-sound relationships, varying from teacher to teacher.Interpersonal communication is the skill set used between two individuals, with one acting as a sender and the other acting as a receiver.
Surprisingly, even this relatively simple form of communication is fraught with many types of problems.
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