Image of Dresden during the s. The German army was retreating on all fronts, but still resisting strongly.
Aerial bombardment and international law The Hague Conventions of andwhich address the codes of wartime conduct on land and at sea, were adopted before the rise of air power.
Despite repeated diplomatic attempts to update international humanitarian law to include aerial warfareit was not updated before the outbreak of World War II. The absence of specific international humanitarian law did not mean aerial warfare was not covered under the laws of warbut rather that there was no general agreement of how to interpret those laws.
Also, the major powers' possession of newly developed advanced bombers was a great military advantage; they would not accept any negotiated limitations regarding this new weapon.
In the absence of specific laws relating to aerial warfare, the belligerents' aerial forces at the start of World War II used the Hague Conventions — signed and ratified by most major powers — as the customary standard to govern their conduct in warfare, and these conventions were interpreted by both sides to allow the indiscriminate bombing of enemy cities throughout the war.
If the first badly bombed cities — WarsawRotterdamBelgradeand London — suffered at the hands of the Germans and not the Allies, nonetheless the ruins of German and Japanese cities were the results not of reprisal but of deliberate policy, and bore witness that aerial bombardment of cities and factories has become a recognized part of modern warfare as carried out by all nations.
Consequently, cyclical arguments, such as those advanced by Italian general and air power theorist Giulio Douhetdo not appear to violate any of the Convention's provisions. A Critical History of the Laws of War explains that: RooseveltPresident of the neutral United States, issued an appeal to the major belligerents Britain, France, Germany, and Poland to confine their air raids to military targets, and "under no circumstances undertake bombardment from the air of civilian populations in unfortified cities"  The British and French agreed to abide by the request, with the British reply undertaking to "confine bombardment to strictly military objectives upon the understanding that these same rules of warfare will be scrupulously observed by all their opponents".
If the Luftwaffe confined attacks to purely military targets, the RAF should "launch an attack on the German fleet at Wilhelmshaven " and "attack warships at sea when found within range". British historian Norman Davies writes in Europe at War — Also, the centrally placed town hall was an ideal orientation point for the crews.
We watched possibility of orientation after visible signs, and also the size of village, what guaranteed that bombs nevertheless fall down on Frampol. From one side it should make easier the note of probe, from second side it should confirm the efficiency of used bombs.
The directives issued to the Luftwaffe for the Polish Campaign were to prevent the Polish Air Force from influencing the ground battles or attacking German territory. Preparations were made for a concentrated attack Operation Wasserkante by all bomber forces against targets in Warsaw.
German author Boog claims that with the arrival of German ground forces, the situation of Warsaw changed; under the Hague Conventionthe city could be legitimately attacked as it was a defended city in the front line that refused calls to surrender.
The Luftwaffe air campaign resulted in the deaths of an estimated 20, — 25, civilians. On 22 September, Wolfram von Richthofen messaged, "Urgently request exploitation of last opportunity for large-scale experiment as devastation terror raid Every effort will be made to eradicate Warsaw completely".
His request was rejected. Therefore, there is no reason for French retorsions. The town was completely destroyed. The Polish air force left Poland on 18 September due to the Soviet attack on 17 Septemberand imminent capture of the Polish airstrips and aircraft stationed in eastern parts of Poland.
There was no exception; even Pursuit Brigadean organic part of the defences of the Polish capital, Warsawwas transferred to Lublinone week into the war.
Germany's first strikes were not carried out until 16 and 17 Octoberagainst the British fleet at Rosyth and Scapa Flow. As the winter set in, both sides engaged in propaganda warfare, dropping leaflets on the populations below.
The British government banned attacks on land targets and German warships in port due to the risk of civilian casualties. Rotterdam Blitz Rotterdam's burning city centre shortly after the German bombingon May 14, The Germans used the threat of bombing Rotterdam to try to get the Dutch to come to terms and surrender.
After a second ultimatum had been issued by the Germans, it appeared their effort had failed and on 14 MayLuftwaffe bombers were ordered to bomb Rotterdam in an effort to force the capitulation of the besieged city. There was an attempt to call off the assault, but the bombing mission had already begun.
Out of Heinkel He s57 dropped their ordnance, a combined 97 tons of bombs. In the resulting fire 1. The strike killed between —1, civilians, wounded over 1, and made 78, homeless. Furthermore, the bombing was against well-defined targets, albeit in the middle of the city, and would have assisted the advancing German Army.
We are all agreed that it is better to draw the enemy on to this Island by striking at his vitals, and thus to aid the common cause.
As a result of the attack, 47 people were killed and were wounded. Consequently, the bombs were usually scattered over a large area, causing an uproar in Germany. Britain was determined to keep fighting. These training flights continued through July and August, and into the first week of September.
The war against England is to be restricted to destructive attacks against industry and air force targets which have weak defensive forces. The most thorough study of the target concerned, that is vital points of the target, is a pre-requisite for success.The bombing of Dresden was a British/American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II in the European ph-vs.com four raids between 13 and 15 February , heavy bombers of the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) dropped more than 3, tons of high-explosive bombs .
The bombing of Dresden was a British/American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II in the European ph-vs.com four raids between 13 and 15 February , heavy bombers of the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) dropped more than 3, tons of high-explosive bombs .
World War II - The Battle of Britain: With France conquered, Hitler could now turn his forces on Germany’s sole remaining enemy: Great Britain, which was protected from the formidable German Army by the waters of the English Channel.
On July 16, , Hitler issued a directive ordering the preparation and, if necessary, the execution of a plan for the invasion of Great Britain. There were numerous battles in World War ph-vs.com of these battles lasted only days while others took months or years.
Some of the battles were notable for the material losses such as tanks or aircraft carriers while others were notable for the number of human losses. The Second World War was documented on a huge scale by thousands of photographers and artists who created millions of pictures.
American military photographers representing all of the armed services covered the battlefronts around the world. World War II - The Battle of Britain: With France conquered, Hitler could now turn his forces on Germany’s sole remaining enemy: Great Britain, which was protected from the formidable German Army by the waters of the English Channel.
On July 16, , Hitler issued a directive ordering the preparation and, if necessary, the execution of a plan for the invasion of Great Britain.